Dissolved pollutants in waters or pollutants in process airstreams can be adsorbed to different types of solid materials in fixed beds. When a certain amount is adsorbed the bed does not have the ability to take up more way a breakthrough occurs and the pollutants will pass through the bed. Exchange or regenerating of the adsorbent must be done.
There are various types of adsorptions systems:
The adsorbent can be of various types depending on pollutant and application. For example, active carbon, synthetic zeolites or polymer materials can be used but also natural materials like peat can be used.